LATINDADD and Jubilee USA created this map to highlight the range of factors—beyond income per capita—that together determine the response capacity of developing countries in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.

All the countries covered in this map are classified as middle- or high-income. As a result, they have limited access to concessional financing and have been mostly left out of pandemic-related debt suspension and other relief initiatives.

The international community must take a broader approach—and develop policies that recognize the pre-existing characteristics that made the pandemic hit developing countries harder. The mapping identifies these vulnerabilities and includes data to measure them. It will also help policymakers target pandemic response and recovery interventions.

As more data becomes available in the future, this map will enable a deeper analysis and understanding of how the pandemic affected these pre-existing vulnerabilities.


The research involved the survey, identification, collection and selection of relevant and suitable indicators, as well as commissioning on-the-ground researchers to gather missing data. Within these indicators, the research team selected indicators for which data was recent, covering enough countries, and gathered on a comparable basis. For some indicators that did not meet these characteristics, the team found proxies that did.